Bread flour contains a higher gluten (protein) content. This gives the bread that structured texture that holds the air bubbles. Certain species of wheat contain a higher gluten percentage and are used for bread flour.
All purpose has a moderate amount of gluten in it so it can be used for bread or cakes.
Cake and Pastry flour has a lower percentage of gluten in it. Cakes are lighter because of it.
Wheat gluten can be purchased separately and added to all purpose if you wish to make a more structured dough.
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